State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults (Charles D. Spielberger, English)
The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults™ (STAI-AD) is the definitive instrument for measuring anxiety in adults. It clearly differentiates between the temporary condition of “state anxiety” and the more general and long-standing quality of “trait anxiety”. It helps professionals distinguish between a client’s feelings of anxiety and depression. The inventory’s simplicity makes it ideal for evaluating individuals with lower educational backgrounds. Adapted in more than forty languages, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults is the leading measure of personal anxiety worldwide. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults has forty questions with a range of four possible responses to each. Note that the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults Form X (the previous form) is available from Mind Garden to match pre-1983 research.
To measure via self-report the presence and severity of current symptoms of anxiety and a generalized propensity to be anxious. Versions of this measure are available for both adults and children.
There are 2 subscales within this measure. First, the State Anxiety Scale (S-Anxiety) evaluates the current state of anxiety, asking how respondents feel “right now,” using items that measure subjective feelings of apprehension, tension, nervousness, worry, and activation/arousal of the autonomic nervous system. The Trait Anxiety Scale (T-Anxiety) evaluates relatively stable aspects of “anxiety proneness,” including general states of calmness, confidence, and security.
Number of items
The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults has 40 items, 20 items allocated to each of the S-Anxiety, and T-Anxiety subscales. There is also a State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults for children (STAIC) with the same number of items. Short versions of the scales have been developed independently (2–4).
Responses for the S-Anxiety scale assess the intensity of current feelings “at this moment”: 1) not at all, 2) somewhat, 3) moderately so, and 4) very much so. Responses for the T-Anxiety scale assess the frequency of feelings “in general”: 1) almost never, 2) sometimes, 3) often, and 4) almost always.
Examples of use
First published in 1970 with the original STAI-X, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults was revised in 1983 (STAI-Y) and has been used extensively in a number of chronic medical conditions including rheumatic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (5), systemic lupus erythematosus (6), fibromyalgia, and other musculoskeletal conditions (7).
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