Prosocial Tendencies Measure
Prosocial Tendencies Measure
Prosocial Tendencies Measure–Revised. The Prosocial Tendencies Measure (PTM) originally was developed to assess the self-report of six types of prosocial behaviors among college individuals (Carlo & Randall, 2002). Items for the PTM were selected from the previously developed prosocial disposition and behavior scales (Johnson et al., 1989; Rushton, Chrisjohn, & Fekken, 1981; Schroeder et al., 1995) and from responses to prosocial moral reasoning interviews (Eisenberg et al., 1995). Carlo and Randall (2001) reported adequate model fit coefficients using confirmatory factor analysis with college students.
The PTM was modified to use with younger adolescents in the present study. To develop the version for younger adolescents, a focus group (10 adolescents, ages 11 through 16) of adolescents was asked to evaluate the original PTM items for clarity and relevance and asked for suggestions to improve the items. After the slight revisions in the wording (for simpler vocabulary) and after adding two items based on suggestions from the focus group, the Prosocial Tendencies Measure–Revised (PTM-R) consists of 25 items that assess six types of prosocial behaviors.
The six types of prosocial behaviors in the PTM-R include public, anonymous, dire, emotional, compliant, and altruism (see appendix). Public prosocial behaviors were defined as behaviors intended to benefit others enacted in the presence of others (four items; sample item, “I can help others best when people are watching me”). Anonymous prosocial behaviors were defined as the tendency to help others without other people’s knowledge (five items; “I think that helping others without them knowing is the best type of situation”). Dire prosocial behaviors refer to helping others under emergency or crisis situations (three items; “I tend to help people who are in real crisis or need”). Emotional prosocial behaviors are behaviors intended to benefit others enacted under emotionally evocative situations (five items; “I respond to helping others best when the situation is highly emotional”). Compliant prosocial behaviors refer to helping others when asked to (two items; “When people ask me to help them, I don’t hesitate”). Altruism refers to helping others when it is little or no perceived potential for a direct, explicit reward to the self (six items; “I often help even if I don’t think I will get anything out of helping”). Data were coded such that high scores on each of these scales reflect a stronger endorsement. Scoring key and instructions for the PTM-R can be obtained on request from the first author.
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