Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale
Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale
Organizational Citizenship Behavior is a new topic in organizational behavior. It is an extra-role behavior which is
voluntary is not designed by the organization and leads to improved effectiveness and efficiency. The organizational citizenship behaviors include organizational obey, organizational loyalty, and organizational participation and its components include social customs, altruism, work ethic, sportsmanship, and courtesy. Among the ways to strengthen and promote organizational citizenship behavior in organizations is through recruitment and selection, training and development, performance evaluation and compensation, and unofficial roles. The OCB is also proposed in Islamic religious teachings. In Islamic literature, it has emerged in concepts such as kindness and forgiveness, courtesy, love, brotherhood, help, and assistance (Hoseini, 2010).
One of the basic definitions that have been accepted by many researchers is provided by Organ (1988): the organizational citizenship behaviors are the discretionary behaviors of employees which are not part of their official duties and are not considered directly by the formal reward system of the organization, but they increase the overall effectiveness of the organization (Borhani Nejad, 2010).
The concept of organizational citizenship behavior has been the subject of much research in the last 20 years and its importance continues to grow. The conducted studies are mainly three types. Some research has focused on prediction and experimental tests of factors creating organizational citizenship behavior such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational identity, organizational justice, trust, and etc. Although the term of organizational citizenship behavior was first used by Organ and his colleagues in 1983, some researchers such as Katz and Kahn distinguished between role function and innovative and spontaneous behaviors before him in the seventies and eighties and before them, Chester and Bernard considered this issue by proposing the concept of willingness to cooperate in 1938. Organ considers organizational citizenship behavior as positive measures of employees to improve efficiency and cohesion in the workplace which are beyond the organizational requirements (Moghimi, 2005).
The three components which are proposed in the Organ’s definition are as follows:
- Discretionary and not compulsory behavior
- Have multi-facet nature
- It is a behavior that is very important to organizational performance and operational success.
- It is a behavior that is not directly rewarded and is not appreciated by the organization structure (Moghimi, 2005).
Graham (1991) argues that organizational citizenship behavior has three types:
- Organizational obey: This includes behaviors that are necessary and reasonable such as respect to organizational rules, the fulfillment of duties, and conducting responsibilities considering the human resources.
- Loyalty (A- individuals, B- organization): The loyalty to the organization is different from loyalty to yourself, other People, units, and organizational sections. It refers to the dedication of staff to organizational resources and protection and defense from the organization.
- Organizational participation: It refers to involvement in organizations such as voluntary participation in meetings, sharing the beliefs with others, and awareness of current problems in the organization.
The OCB scale is a 16 item scale, divided into two parts with 8 items each for individual directed (OCBI) and organization-directed (OCBO) organizational citizenship behavior (Lee & Allen, 2002; Williams & Anderson, 1991) . It uses a five-point Likert scale (I = ‘never’; 5 = ‘always’). A high score on each subscale indicates a high frequency of demonstrating OCB behaviors. The authors report alpha coefficients .87 and .89 for the OCBI scale and the OCBO scale respectively. For the Marathi version (refer to Appendix E), the reliability coefficients were found to be .79 and .77 respectively.
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