Multi-Dimensional Emotional Empathy Scale
Multidimensional Emotional Empathy Scale (MDEES)
The 30-item scale measures the ability to recognize and understand emotions experienced by others. The scale consisted of six dimensions: Suffering (e.g., ‘‘The suffering of others deeply disturbs me”), Positive Sharing (e.g., ‘‘Seeing other people smile makes me smile”), Responsive Crying (e.g., ‘‘I don’t cry easily”), Emotional Attention (e.g., ‘‘I don’t give others’ feelings much thought”), Feel for Others (e.g., ‘‘I feel other people’s pain”), and Emotional Contagion (e.g., ‘‘When I’m with other people who are laughing I join in”). In order to reduce response bias and social desirability bias, six items were negatively worded and reversed scored. An example of one of the reversed scored items is ‘‘I rarely take notice when other people treat each other warmly.” The empathy scale includes items dealing with positive emotional situations (e.g., ‘‘It makes me happy when I see people being nice to each other”), as well as negative emotional situations (e.g., ‘‘It makes me mad to see someone treated unjustly”). Responses for each item were measured on a five-point scale (1 = ‘‘Strongly Disagree”; 5 = ‘‘Strongly Agree”), with higher scores indicating a greater level of emotional empathy.
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