Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire
Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire
Description of Measure:
A 16-item scale designed to measure an individual’s emotional expressivity. The scale is separated into 3 facets: Negative Expressivity, Positive Expressivity, and Impulse Strength. Each item is answered on a 7-point Likert-type ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree).
Abstracts of Selected Related Articles:
Gross, J.J., & John, O.P. (1998). Mapping the domain of expressivity: Multi-method evidence for a hierarchical model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 170-191.
Increased interest in emotional expressivity has led to a proliferation of conceptions and measures. It is unclear, however, whether they all refer to the same construct and whether the domain of emotional expressivity is best conceptualized as unidimensional or multifaceted. Study 1 examined 6 common expressivity questionnaires, yielding 5 factors: Expressive Confidence, Positive Expressivity, Negative Expressivity, Impulse Intensity, and Masking. To develop a nomological network for these factors, the factors were related to broader personality taxonomies and their differential relations to sex and ethnicity were tested. Study 2 provided further evidence of discriminant validity in relation to (a) typical emotion expression in peer relationships, (b) ability to pose emotions in the laboratory, (c) likability, and (d) regulation of emotion and mood. These findings support a hierarchical model of individual differences in emotional expressivity.
Gross, J. J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2, 271-299.
The emerging field of emotion regulation studies how individuals influence which emotions they have, when they have them, and how they experience and express them. This review takes an evolutionary perspective and characterizes emotion in terms of response tendencies. Emotion regulation is defined and distinguished from coping, mood regulation, defense, and affect regulation. In the increasingly specialized discipline of psychology, the field of emotion regulation cuts across traditional boundaries and provides common ground. According to a process Self Report Measures for Love and Compassion Research: Personal Growth and Positive Emotions model of emotion regulation, emotion may be regulated at five points in the emotion generative process: (a) selection of the situation, (b) modification of the situation, (c) deployment of attention, (d) change of cognitions, and (e) modulation of responses. The field of emotion regulation promises new insights into age-old questions about how people manage their emotions.
Gross, J.J., John, O.P., & Richards, J.M. (2000). The dissociation of emotion expression from emotion experience: A personality perspective. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 712-726.
When we want to know what others are feeling, we look to the face for clues. However, individual differences matter: Some faces are more expressive than others. Do both emotion experience and dispositional expressivity predict emotion expression? Based on an analysis of display rules, the authors hypothesized that expressivity would moderate the relation between experience and expression for negative, but not for positive, emotion. Study 1 examined the relation between habitual emotion experience and peer-rated expressive behavior and showed the predicted moderator effect for negative emotion: Experience was related to expression only for dispositionally high-expressivity participants, not for low expressivity participants. For positive emotion, however, experience was related to expression for both groups. Study 2 replicated these findings using momentary emotion experience and objectively coded expressive behavior during films that elicited amusement and sadness. Results are interpreted in terms of low expressivity individuals’ propensity to dynamically regulate negative emotion expressive behavior.
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