January 11 in the history of Psychology

January 11

1842 — William James was born. James founded the first demonstration laboratory of psychology equipment in America (1875) and wrote the classic Principles of Psychology. His approach stressed the adaptive qualities of thought and behavior, presaging functionalism and behaviorism. APA President, 1894 and 1904; President, American Philosophical Association, 1906.

january-111867 — Edward Bradford Titchener was born. Titchener promoted his interpretation of Wundtian experimental psychology, structuralism, in the United States. Psychology, for Titchener, was the systematic analysis of mental experience through introspection.

1890 — The first psychological laboratory at a Canadian university was inaugurated at the University of Toronto by James Mark Baldwin. Baldwin was at Toronto from 1889 to 1893 and was serving that appointment when he participated as a founder of the APA in 1892.

1897 — Carney Landis was born. Landis is best known for a paper with William A. Hunt describing the startle response, but he had wide-ranging interests in abnormal, developmental, physiological, and emotional psychology.

1899 — Grete Lehner Bibring was born. Bibring was a prominent psychoanalyst and a training analyst at the Harvard Medical School.

1927 — Leonard Goodstein was born. Goodstein’s interests have been primarily in clinical and industrial/organizational psychology, organizational development, and consultation. APA Executive Vice President and Chief Executive Officer, 1985-1988.

January 11, 2016 / by / in ,
January 10 in the history of Psychology

January 10

1881 — Hanns Sachs was born on this day in 1881 and died on this day in 1947. An early Freudian, Sachs was the first training analyst and founded The American Imago.

1887 — The Arizona State Hospital for the Insane, located at Phoenix, opened for the admission of patients. The firstjanuary 10 superintendent was O. L. Mahoney. Prior to 1887, people in the Territory of Arizona with serious mental illness were cared for at a private hospital in Stockton, California. The institution is now named Arizona State Hospital.

1910 — Marie Skodak Crissey was born. Crissey worked extensively with studies of mental retardation, testing, and child development, becoming well-known for her studies of environmental deprivation and enrichment on mental development. She helped develop special education, school psychology, and school social work programs in the public schools.

1942 — The first version of E. F. Lindquist’s Iowa Every-Pupil Tests of Basic Skills was published. The test is now known more simply as the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills.

1962 — The petition to create APA Division 24 (Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology) was submitted. Joseph Lyons and Joe Shoben promoted the formation of the division.

1981 — Vytautas Bieliauskas’s House-Tree-Person Test was published.

January 10, 2016 / by / in ,
January 9 in the history of Psychology

January 9

1778 — Thomas Brown was born. Brown was a Scottish school philosopher who first distinguished between the processes of sensation and perception.

1878 — John Broadus Watson was born. Watson’s behaviorism defined psychology as an objective, experimental branch of natural science, shunning mentalism. APA President, 1915.

1886 — Edwin R. Guthrie was born. Guthrie’s associationist theory of learning relied solely on contiguity of stimulus andjanuary_9 response to form learned sets in one learning trial. APA President, 1945; American Psychological Foundation Gold Medal, 1958.

1888 — James McKeen Cattell delivered his first university lecture, at Bryn Mawr College.

1891 — The first issue of G. Stanley Hall’s Pedagogical Seminary, later titled the Journal of Genetic Psychology, was published.

1903 — Donald W. MacKinnon was born. MacKinnon was best known for his extensive series of studies on creativity, performed at the Institute for Personality Assessment and Research at the University of California, Berkeley.

1925 — The APA certificate of incorporation was recorded in the Office of the Recorder of Deeds in the District of Columbia.

1930 — The Journal of Social Psychology was first published. The journal was founded by Carl Murchison and John Dewey. The original copyright holder was Clark University.

1932 — Elliot Aronson was born. Aronson’s work in social psychology includes studies of cognitive dissonance, developing a method for reducing racial prejudice (The Jigsaw Classroom, 1978), writing an engaging textbook (The Social Animal, 1972) and coediting two editions of the Handbook of Social Psychology (1968, 1985). American Psychological Foundation Distinguished Teaching in Psychology Award, 1980.

1932 — Edward C. Tolman’s Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men was published. The book explained the theory and supportive research of Tolman’s blend of cognitive and behavioral psychology.

1937 — The first published report of insulin shock therapy for schizophrenia in an American hospital appeared in the Journal of the American Medical Association. Julius Steinfeld was the author.

1952 — The U.S. Army’s Clinical Psychology Officer Course opened at the Medical Field Service School, Fort Sam Houston, Texas. Officers completing the course were given the military occupational specialty rating of psychological assistant.

1957 — Louisiana Psychologists, Inc., was incorporated, with Bernard Bass as president. Louisiana Psychologists, like similar organizations in other states, operated in the absence of state certification or licensing laws to regulate the professional practice of psychology. Nonstatutory certification was superseded in each state as regulatory laws were passed.

1970 — The first APA Division 29 (Psychotherapy) Midwinter Convention began in Tampa, Florida. The theme of the 3-day meeting was “Innovation in Communication.” The division’s midwinter meetings have continued to the present and have expanded to include participation by other practice-oriented divisions of the APA. Vin Rosenthal and Stephen Mourer organized the first meeting.

1975 — The Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes was first published by the APA. Allen R. Wagner served as editor. The new journal was created by division of the content of the earlier Journal of Experimental Psychology.

January 9, 2016 / by / in ,
January 8 in the history of Psychology

January 8

1823 — Alfred Russel Wallace was born. Wallace was stimulated by reading Malthus’s Essay on the Principle of Population to develop a theory of evolution at the same time as Darwin. Receipt of Wallace’s manuscript, “On the Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely from the Original Type” in June 1858 spurred Darwin to make public his own theory of evolution.

1885 — The American Society for Psychical Research was founded. The first president was Simon Newcomb, an astronomer at Johns Hopkins University.

jan 81890 — William James’s academic title at Harvard University was changed to professor of psychology. James began his career at Harvard as an instructor (1872) and assistant professor (1876) of physiology. His title was later changed to assistant professor (1880) and professor (1885) of philosophy. On October 31, 1897, his title reverted back to professor of philosophy.

1902 — Carl R. Rogers was born. Rogers pioneered “nondirective” or “client-centered” therapy, which is based on the principles of humanistic psychology. He won the APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award in 1956 and the APA Distinguished Professional Contribution Award in 1972, the first years each of those awards was presented. APA President, 1947.

1918 — Sol L. Garfield was born. Garfield has concentrated on comprehensive surveys of psychotherapy research and the training of clinical psychologists. His Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change (1971), edited with Allen Bergin, has been the definitive summary of the field for more than 20 years. APA Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions, 1979.

1923 — George D. Goldman was born. Goldman has advanced the profession of psychology by being a cofounder and clinic director of the Adelphi University Postdoctoral Program in Psychotherapy and by legally defending the right of clinical psychologists to conduct private psychotherapy. APA Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions, 1988.

1955 — The New York State Mental Hygiene Department reported that mental patients with varying diagnoses showed improvement after being treated with the new drugs Thorazine (chlorpromazine) and Serpasil (reserpine).

1971 — The Practice of Psychology Act for the District of Columbia (Public Law 91-657) was signed by President Nixon. This licensing legislation had been introduced in Congress by Senator Alan Bible (D-NV). Licensure legislation introduced in 1966 and 1967 had not been approved by Congress.

1975 — The drug Nembutol (pentobarbital sodium; Abbott Laboratories) was approved for use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The first approval of pentobarbital sodium was awarded on August 31, 1939, to Premo Pharmaceuticals. Pentobarbital is a barbiturate used as an antianxiety agent and as a sedative.

January 8, 2016 / by / in ,
January 7 in the history of Psychology

January 7

1906 — John C. Flanagan was born. Flanagan was an aviation psychology pioneer, the first psychologist in the U.S. Air Force (1941), and founder of the American Institutes for Research. He helped develop the critical incident technique of personnel selection and research-based programs of individual instruction. APA Distinguished Professional Contributions Award, 1976; American Psychological Foundation Gold Medal, 1993.

1908 — Sigmund Freud’s “Little Hans” had his first phobic attack. The case of Little Hans led to Freud’s theories of infantile7 sexuality and dreams as expressions of wish fulfillment.

1946 — The APA’s flagship journal, the American Psychologist, was first published. Dael Wolfle, then executive director of the APA, was the first editor.

1947 — Spring Grove State Hospital in Maryland announced that it had released several patients with “incurable” mental disorders after they had undergone prefrontal lobotomies. There was widespread use of the prefrontal lobotomy in the 1940s.

1958 — John W. Atkinson’s article “Motivational Determinants of Risk-Taking Behavior” was published in Psychological Review.

1965 — Robert M. Gagné’s book, The Conditions of Learning was published. By 1977, the book had gone through three editions and had been cited in over 875 other publications. The journalCurrent Contents featured Gagné’s book as a “citation classic.”

1988 — The use of a fetal tissue transplant to relieve the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease was first reported. Neurosurgeon Ignacio Navarro Madrazo of Mexico City’s La Raza Medical Center reported in the New England Journal of Medicine that he had transplanted brain tissue from a spontaneously aborted fetus into the brain of 35-year-old Leonor Cruz Bello, whose symptoms abated within weeks.

January 7, 2016 / by / in ,
January 6 in the history of Psychology

January 6

1856 — Hermann von Helmholtz published his research on the physiology of stereoscopic vision.

january-61860 — George F. Stout was born. Stout was primarily known for his psychology textbooks, especially his Manual of Psychology (1899), and for the doctrine of conation, a theory of mental processes that incorporated thinking, feeling, and motivational factors.

1906 — Clarence H. Graham was born. Graham won the APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award in 1966 for his classic studies of color vision and studies of characteristics of achromatic vision such as critical flicker frequency, luminosity curves, and the area-intensity problem.

1943 — Patrick H. DeLeon was born. DeLeon, a clinical and forensic psychologist and executive assistant to U.S. Senator Daniel K. Inouye, has provided an informed influence on the congressional treatment of psychological services in public health policy. APA Award for Distinguished Service in the Public Interest, 1984; APA Distinguished Professional Contribution Award, 1986 and 1989. APA President, 2000.

1953 — The antiepileptic drug Dilantin (phenytoin; Parke-Davis) was approved for use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Phenytoin appears to control seizures by promoting sodium efflux from neurons, increasing the threshold of stimulation for neural firing.

1988 — The APA agreed to take over publication of the Clinician’s Research Digest from the Relational Dynamics Institute. The agreement took effect on July 1, 1988. George Stricker was the first editor under APA ownership.



January 6, 2016 / by / in ,
January 5 in the history of Psychology

January 5

1900 — Florence Halpern was born. Halpern was considered the “grandmother of psychology” in New York. Her interests were in clinical psychology, especially the assessment and treatment of children. She was part of a group that advocated the first certification bill for psychologists in New York.

1911 — Gunnar Johansson was born. Johansson’s studies of visual event perception have examined human interpretation ofjanuary_5 moving stimuli over time. Special topics have been perceptual vector analysis, perception of minimal events, biological motion, nonrigid motion, self-motion, and natural motion. APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award, 1986.

1926 — Jesse G. Harris, Jr., was born. Harris was a clinical psychologist whose research interests included premorbid competence and schizophrenia, clinical versus actuarial prediction, clinical diagnosis, and character structure and performance of Peace Corps volunteers.

1948 — The manual for the Miller Analogies Test was published.

1953 — The Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association was first published.

1959 — Harry Harlow’s article “The Nature of Love” was published in the American Psychologist.

1973 — The petition to create APA Division 34 (Population and Environmental Psychology) was submitted. Sidney Newman headed the petitioning group.

1990 — Garaldine Downey and James C. Coyne’s article “Children of Depressed Parents: An Integrative Review” was published in Psychological Bulletin. This literature review was among the most frequently cited psychology articles of the early 1990s.

1993 — Ted Strickland, the first psychologist elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, was sworn into office. Strickland represented the Sixth District of Ohio, where he was a consulting psychologist at the Ohio Correctional Facility. Strickland, a Democrat, was defeated in 1994, when Republicans won control of both the House and Senate.

January 6, 2016 / by / in ,
January 4 in the history of Psychology

January 4

1895 — James McKeen Cattell purchased the failing journal Science in late 1894 and published its first issue under his editorship on this date. The journal had been founded in 1883 by Alexander Graham Bell and Gardiner Hubbard.

January 4 in the history of Psychology

1916 — Sidney Siegel was born. Siegel was a statistician and decision theorist who provided, among other contributions, a widely used text in nonparametric statistics.

1937 — Abraham A. Brill’s English translation of Josef Breuer and Sigmund Freud’s book Studies in Hysteria was published in the United States.

1948 — Alfred Kinsey’s book Sexual Behavior in the Human Male was published. Kinsey’s extensive surveys of sexual behavior in men attracted great popular interest and was commonly known as “The Kinsey Report.”

1954 — Lee J. Cronbach’s book Educational Psychology was published.

1957 — Calvin Hall and Gardner Lindzey’s book Theories of Personality was published. This review of historical and contemporary theories became a standard text in the area.



January 4, 2016 / by / in ,
January 3

January 3

1845 — Reform activist Dorothea Dix presented a memorial to the New Jersey legislature, describing the state’s treatment of people with mental illness. The state had no public mental hospitals and patients were housed in county jails, private homes and the basements of public buildings. The New Jersey State Hospital at Trenton resulted from Dix’s determined efforts.

1875 — Katharine Cook Briggs was born. Briggs’s interpretation of Jungian personality theory formed the basis of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, constructed by her daughter, Isabel Myers.

3-january in the history of Psychology1904 — Harold Schlosberg was born. Schlosberg developed a theory of emotion that arranged emotions on bipolar scales of pleasant-unpleasant and attention-rejection. With R. S. Woodworth, he wrote Experimental Psychology (1954), a landmark text.

1920 — Paul E. Meehl was born. His interests were in clinical psychology, especially clinical assessment, and in personality, learning, psychometrics, and the philosophy of science. APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award, 1958; APA President, 1962.

1923 — Wilbert E. Fordyce was born. Fordyce has implemented revolutionary treatments for pain-related suffering that are based on applied principles of operant conditioning. Suffering is viewed as a behavior that can be reduced by common principles of behavior. Pain clinics around the world employ Fordyce’s techniques. APA Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions, 1986.

1939 — J. Douglas Carroll was born. Carroll is known for his discovery and representation of structures underlying matrices of psychological data. He developed the individual-differences scaling model, which is used for the analysis of similarity data and has influenced perceptual and cognitive psychology. APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award, 1989.

1961 — George Homans’s book Social Behavior: Its Elementary Forms was published.

1964 — Milton Rokeach’s book The Three Christs of Ypsilanti was published. The book presents classic case studies of abnormal personality.

1972 — Allen Newell and Herbert Simon’s book Human Problem Solving was published. In 1980, this book was featured as a “citation classic” by the journal Current Contents.

1992 — In its ruling on Abrahamson v. Gonzalez, the 11th Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that Florida’s law prohibiting unlicensed practitioners from calling themselves psychologists was an unconstitutional restriction of free speech.



January 3, 2016 / by / in ,
January 2

January 2

1882 — Jean-Martin Charcot was appointed to the newly created Chair of Nervous Diseases at the Salpêtrière, the first formal

January 2 in the history of Psychology


recognition of neurology as a separate medical discipline.

1899 — Fred S. Keller was born. Keller, an early radical behaviorist, is best known for the development of the personalized system of instruction (PSI), a self-paced method of instruction that is based on behavioral principles. He won the first American Psychological Foundation Award for Distinguished Teaching in 1970. APA Distinguished Scientific Award for Applications of Psychology, 1976.

1901 — David Shakow was born. Shakow’s research on thought disturbances in schizophrenia was widely read. He was active in the development of modern professional standards of clinical psychology. He headed the National Institute of Mental Health Psychology Laboratory for many years. APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award, 1975; APA Distinguished Professional Contribution Award, 1976.

1918 — Kenneth B. Little was born. Little’s interests have been in clinical psychology and the history and systems of psychology. APA Executive Officer, 1969-1975.

1925 — The American Psychological Association was incorporated.

1951 — Carl Rogers’s book Client-Centered Therapy was published. The book described the philosophy and practice of nondirective psychotherapy.

1964 — Bernard Berelson and Gary A. Steiner’s book Human Behavior: An Inventory of Scientific Findings was published. By 1979, their book had been cited in over 330 other publications and appeared as a “citation classic” in the journal Current Contents.

1968 — Thomas H. Holmes and Richard H. Rahe published the Schedule of Recent Experience, a noteworthy scale for assessing the stressful impact of readjusting to recent life events. An earlier version of the scale had appeared in the Journal of Psychosomatic Research.



January 2, 2016 / by / in ,