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Submitted by: Tayyaba Kayani

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Motivation can be defined as internal state of activating behavior that gives direction. It is the set of psychological forces that make individuals to perform and complete their goals.

In other words, it can be described as to bring a change is easier than to stick to the old rules. It helps you to draw attention towards your goals more appropriately. It is the energy that drives individuals and they get more directed toward their destinations.

Motivation can be intrinsic or extrinsic depending on the context. Intrinsic motivation is the self-desire to explore new things and different challenges, to evaluate one’s ability, to observe and to gain knowledge. It is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on external pressures or a desire for consideration. Extrinsic motivation refers to the performance of an activity in order to attain a desired outcome and it is the opposite of intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation comes from influences outside of the individual. Usually extrinsic motivation is used to attain outcomes that a person wouldn’t get from intrinsic motivation.

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Most motivation theorists believe that motivation is involved in the performance of all learned responses; that is, a learned behavior will not occur unless it is energized.  The major question among psychologists, in general, is whether motivation is a primary or secondary influence on behavior.  That is, are changes in behavior better explained by principles of environmental or ecological influences, perception, memory, cognitive development, emotion, explanatory style, or personality or are concepts unique to motivation more pertinent.

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Motivation lies at the core of many behaviorist approaches to psychological treatment. A person with autism-spectrum disorder is seen as lacking motivation to perform socially relevant behaviors – social stimuli are not as reinforcing for people with autism compared to other people. Depression is understood as a lack of reinforcement (especially positive reinforcement) leading to extinction of behavior in the depressed individual. A patient with specific phobia is not motivated to seek out the phobic stimulus because it acts as a punisher, and is over-motivated to avoid it (negative reinforcement). In accordance, therapies have been designed to address these problems, such as EIBI and CBT for major depression and specific phobia.

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Instinct Theory of Motivation

People are motivated to behave in certain ways because they are evolutionarily programmed to do so.

Incentive Theory of Motivation

People are motivated to do things because of external rewards.

Drive Theory of Motivation

People are motivated to take certain actions in order to reduce the internal tension that is caused by unmet needs.

Arousal Theory of Motivation

People take certain actions to either decrease or increase levels of arousal.

Humanistic Theory of Motivation

People also have strong cognitive reasons to perform various actions.

Expectancy Theory of Motivation

When people are thinking about the future, they formulate different expectations about what they think will happen. When they predict that there will most likely be a positive outcome, they believe that they are able to make that possible future a reality. This leads people to feel more motivated to pursue those likely outcomes.

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  • Exercise more consistently
  • Become more creative
  • Start each day stress-free
  • Sleep better

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November 28, 2016
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