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Dyspraxia (Sensory Integration Disorder)

(Sensory Integration Disorder)

Submitted by: Haleema Abdul Hayee

Governmentllege University, Lahore

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“Dyspraxia involves problems with movement, coordination, language and speech. It is a disorder that is characterized by difficulty in muscle control”.


Although it is not a learning disability but Dyspraxia often exists along with Dyslexia, Dyscalculia or ADHD. It causes problems with movement and coordination, language and speech, and subsequently can affect child’s learning so that’s why placed in the category of learning disabilities.

[/fusion_tab][fusion_tab title=”Signs/Symptoms”]



  • Exhibits poor balance; may appear clumsy; may frequently stumble.
  • Shows difficulty with motor planning.
  • Demonstrates inability to coordinate both sides of the body
  • Has poor hand-eye coordination
  • Exhibits weakness in the ability to organize self and belongings
  • Shows possible sensitivity to touch
  • May be distressed by loud noises or constant noises like the ticking of a clock or someone tapping a pencil.
  • May break things or choose toys that do not require skilled manipulation
  • Has difficulty with fine motor tasks such as coloring between the lines, putting puzzles together; cutting accurately or pasting neatly
  • Irritated by scratchy, rough, tight or heavy clothing

[/fusion_tab][fusion_tab title=”Causes/Risk factors”]

Causes/Risk factors

  • Genetic History in family
  • Complications during or before birth
  • Other learning disabilities
  • Brain injuries or lesions
  • Some developmental disorders

[/fusion_tab][fusion_tab title=”Assessment Process”]

Assessment Process

  1. Screening ( Behavioral and language observation, informal interviews with parents or teacher, brief test and review of medical, school work histories)
  2. Evaluation (Language and processing speed test, Timely Eye-hand coordination and motor abilities tasks, Wechsler Individual Achievement test in order to detect whether child has learning problems in other areas).
  3. Diagnosis (a statement specifying the results of the assessment, including the type of LD identified and specifying that whether or not this problem is associated with other).
  4. Recommendations (based on the results of diagnosis a recommendation for work, school, and/or daily living is given)

[/fusion_tab][fusion_tab title=”Strategies for Management”]

Strategies for Management at Individual level

  • Pre-set students for touch with verbal prompts, “I’m going to touch your right hand.”
  • Avoid touching from behind or getting too close and make sure peers are aware of this
  • Provide a quiet place, without auditory or visual distractions, for testing, silent reading or work that requires great concentration
  • Warn the student when bells will ring or if a fire drill is scheduled
  • Whisper when working one to one with the child
  • Allow parents to provide earplugs or sterile waxes for noisy events such as assemblies
  • Make sure the parent knows about what is observed about the student in the classroom
  • Refer student for occupational therapy or sensory integration training
  • Be cognizant of light and light sources that may be irritating to child
  • Use manipulative, but make sure they are in student’s field of vision and don’t force student to touch them.


  Implementations of Management plan in Schools

Classroom Interventions

  • Academically focused instructions should be given according to child ability.
  • Classroom adjustments involving special seating assignments should make.
  • Alternative or modified assignments.
  • Quiet environment should be provided to such students.

Modeling of Academic Skills that has to be learn

  • Teacher’s demonstrations of different subject skills and higher-level procedural steps have been found effective in problem solving behaviors in students.

Self-instructional Strategy

  • Self-instructional strategy is to teach a student first verbalize the steps that should be used in solving a particular academic problem. Once the student has mastered the application of problem solving, the student is taught to self-instruct but using sub-vocal directions.

Strategy Training: Task Analysis

  • A task analysis of the relevant cognitive operation is demonstrated and explained to the students. When students have mastered the component skills, strategies are provided that help the students integrate the steps and apply them in different problem solving context.

Individualized Educational Program

  • The children with dyspraxia are challenged with respect to their language and motor control so it is most beneficial to teach the child within a structured educational plan that cater every subject for improvement in baby steps.

Tutorial Interventions

  • More time for processing information and for motor tasks should be given.
  • Pictorial or concrete representations should be used for more clarity.
  • Special equipment should be used like word processors with spell checkers and Text-tospeech and speech-to-text programs.
  • Practicing with prompting and gradual fading for a motor or verbal task.
  • Intensive timed practice with different motor and language tasks.
  • Self-regulation strategies should be used as research has shown that students that set their own learning goals are more successful than students who worked on teachers designed learning goals.
  • Cumulative review of the previously mastered skills.
  • Provision of reinforcement on showing improvement

[/fusion_tab][fusion_tab title=”References”]


  • Reiff, Henry B.; Gerber, Paul J.; Ginsberg, Rick (1993). “Definitions of Learning Disabilities from Adults with Learning Disabilities: The Insiders’ Perspectives”. Learning Disability Quarterly. 16 (2): 114–125. doi:10.2307/1511133. JSTOR 1511133.
  • Excerpted from the LDA of California and UC Davis M.I.N.D. Institute “Q.U.I.L.T.S.” Calendar 2001-2002.
  • Reschly, Daniel J.; Hosp, John L.; Schmied, Catherine M. (2003). And Miles to Go. State SLD Requirements and Authoritative Recommendations (Report). National Research Center on Learning Disabilities (NRCLD). Recommendations for Change in SLD Definition and Classification Criteria. Archived from the original on 25 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
  • Specific Learning Disorder. American Psychiatric Association DSM-5 Development. American Psychiatric Association. 15 May 2013


December 11, 2016 / 1 Comment / by / in , ,


My name is Daud Mehsood and I was born in South Waziristan. It is the largest of the tribal Agencies of FATA (Federally Administered Tribal Areas). This blog is not the right place to argue regarding the extremist organizations making our faith hijacked by force and by so called persuasion in terms of mindset. In a nutshell, I was born in that area where I opened my eyes to the sun and see nothing.

One night, I was in my room and suddenly I heard the strange noise of bullets; It was usual for me as it used to happen on daily basis but at that instant it was something that I never observed/heard before. My family and my whole surrounding was jolted by those noise of bullets. Those noise of bullets were of military operation “Rah-e-Nijat” against the extremist organizations.

In this war against terrorism I lost my home infact we lost our homes as 400,000 families moved to Tank (southern district in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) and Dera Ismail Khan from South Waziristan. We became IDPs (Internally Displaced Persons) and after losing our shelter we were bound to live in the open air camps having no facilities at all. Initially, In the camp we were deprived of food and we were humiliated badly. I became hopeless for a year while myself out of energy and feeling acutely down but then I started my real struggle in order to accomplish my goal for a better life.

After years of struggle I decided to check in Islamabad in search of getting better education in order to prosper, so I can have a satisfactory present and future as compare to my past. While my journey to Islamabad, I was investigated on several police check posts and they really treated me badly like an extremist just because I was wearing my traditional dress.

With the passage of time I started improving myself by learning new things and adapting the environment while maintaining the integrity of my own culture. I always wanted to become a model but I was not suitable for this field in terms of physical appearance (as I was weak and feeble) and body language whereas I also used to face the psychology of prejudice because of my birth place i.e. South Waziristan.

After completing my college, in order to pursue my degree in media, I took admission in BS Media & Mass Communication in International Islamic University, Islamabad. During my first semester I referred myself to many fashion designers/modeling agencies for modeling but they rejected me. I never lost my hope and then I accosted to myself that “Ek din mein un sb logo ko Pakistan ka Number 1 model bun kay dekhao ga jinho nay muje humiliate kiyea (because I was from South Waziristan) aur muje reject kiyea”.

Then I joined a gym near to my university and worked hard all days and all nights in order to get my body into shape so I can fit myself into modeling career. With a lot of struggle I dramatically transformed my body into shape. What happened next was shocking for me as my own classmates started getting overly jealoused from me. They used to taunt me by saying “Steroids le kay body banaye hai tm nay and tum kabe model nahi bun saktay” and they never appreciated my hard work.

My elders used to tell me that, happiness and pain is part of life and after every painful moment there’s a happy moment waiting for you but the condition is “Never Give up”. I submitted my portfolio in different modeling and advertising agencies. Soon I started getting calls from the modeling agencies along with fashion designers willing to hire me for their brand shoots. A guy from South Waziristan finally became a model, it’s like “Dream come true”. I will keep on working hard to strive for the best in the future as well. Till now my family don’t know regarding my modeling career as my background doesn’t support me to adopt such career.

My advice for other people is that “Don’t waste your precious time, work hard in order to accomplish your goals as everything is possible with faith and hope. Life is like a roller coaster of emotions so without struggle there is no progress. I am not hopeless and it’s my firm believe that someday I would be able to live my life in South Waziristan in a free and peaceful environment.


December 3, 2016 / by / in ,
Development of Resilience among Children

Development of Resilience among Children

Submitted by: Saria Tariq

University of Central Punjab Lahore

[fusion_tabs design=”classic” layout=”vertical” justified=”yes” backgroundcolor=”” inactivecolor=”#8bc34a” bordercolor=”” hide_on_mobile=”small-visibility,medium-visibility,large-visibility” class=”” id=””][fusion_tab title=”Introduction to Resilience”]

Life can be challenging and may include many stressful situations. Parents and children can feel overwhelmed by different things at different times like in stressful situations. Resilience is the ability to steer through serious life challenges and find ways to bounce back and to thrive.
Parents are the most important people to help build their children’s resilience. Children learn a lot by watching their parents. When parents cope well with everyday stress, they are showing their children how to do the same.

Resilience is a basic human capacity, nascent in all children. Parents and other care givers promote resilience in children through their words, actions and the environment they provide. Adults who promote resilience make family and institutional supports available to children. they encourage children to become increasingly autonomous, independent, responsible, empathic and  altruistic and to approach people and situations with hope, faith and trust. They teach them how to communicate with others, solve problems and successfully handle negative thoughts, feelings and behaviors. Children themselves become active in promoting their own resilience.

     Children need these abilities and resources to face many common — and some not so common — crises. When the International Resilience Project asked children and their parents around the world what adversities they had experienced, the answers were numerous. Among those difficulties experienced within the family, in order of frequency, were:

  • death of parents or grandparents
  • divorce
  • separation
  • illness of parent or siblings
  • poverty
  • moving, family or friends
  • accident causing personal injuries
  • abuse, including sexual abuse
  • abandonment
  • suicide
  • remarriage
  • homelessness
  • poor health and hospitalizations
  • fires causing personal injury
  • forced repatriation of family
  • disabled family member
  • parent’s loss of a job or income
  • murder of a family member

In addition, children and their parents reported facing the following adversities outside the home:

  • robberies
  • war
  • fire
  • earthquake
  • flood
  • car accident
  • adverse economic conditions
  • illegal, refugee status
  • migrant status
  • property damage from storms, floods, cold
  • political detention
  • famine
  • abuse by a non-relative
  • murders in neighborhood
  • unstable government
  • drought

[/fusion_tab][fusion_tab title=”Importance of developing Resilience”]

Resilience makes a big difference in people’s lives. People who respond to hardships with resilience are:

  • Healthier and live longer
  • Happier in their relationships
  • More successful in school and work
  • Less likely to get depressed

[/fusion_tab][fusion_tab title=”What builds resilience?”]

Many of the things that support healthy development in young children also help build their resilience. These things include:

  • A secure bond with a caring adult
  • Relationships with positive role models
  • Opportunities to learn skills
  • Opportunities to participate in meaningful activities

[/fusion_tab][fusion_tab title=”Characteristics of Resilient Children “]

Characteristics of resilient children includes

  • A sense of self-esteem and self-efficacy, which allows the child to cope successfully with challenges.
  • An active stance toward an obstacle or difficulty.
  • The ability to see a difficulty as a problem that can be worked on, overcome, changed, endured, or resolved in some way.
  • Reasonable persistence, with an ability to know when “enough is enough”.
  • A capacity to develop a range of strategies and skills to bear on the problem, which can be used in a flexible way.

[/fusion_tab][fusion_tab title=”Risk and Resilience “]

Over the past five decades, researches has shown that children’s future are made considerably dimmer by exposure to multiple, chronically adverse conditions such as poverty, family dysfunction, parental illness or incompetence, abuse and physical health. Negative outcome of these condition include (Doll & Layon, 1998):

  • Increased delinquent activity/ criminality
  • Lowered measured intelligence
  • Increased educational and learning problems
  • Increased likelihood of physical and mental health problems
  • Increase likelihood of unemployment
  • Decreased likelihood of social competence

However, most of these same studies describe complex transactional relationships by which vulnerable children are protected against adult dysfunction through interplay among characteristics of:

  • The child (e.g., easy temperament, achievement orientated)
  • The caregiver (e.g., a desire to protect the child from burdensome family hardships)
  • The environment (e.g., a high level of support from extended family, friends and other adults including those in schools)

[/fusion_tab][fusion_tab title=”Protective Factor “]

Protective factors may be organized into two groups, those pertaining to individual characteristics and those related to the context or environment (Doll& Lyon, 1998).

Individual characteristics Protective Factors

  • Intellectual ability
  • Positive temperament or easy going disposition
  • Positive social orientation, including close peer relationships
  • High self-efficacy, self-confidence and self0esteem
  • An achievement orientation with realistically high expectations
  • A resilience belief system or faith
  • A higher rate of engagement in productive activity

Contextual protective factors

  • A close, affectionate relationship with at least one parent or caregiver
  • Effective parenting (characterized by warmth structure and realistically high expectations)
  • Access to warm relationships and guidance from the extended family members
  • Access to warm relationship and guidance from other extended family members
  • Access to and relationship with positive adult models in variety of extra familial context
  • Connections with at least one or a variety of prosocial organizations
  • Access to responsive, high quality schools
Risk Factors Protective Factors
Childhood Factors
•      Birth injury/ low birth weight

•      Insecure attachment

•      Poor social skills

•      Social skills

•      Attachment to family

•      School achievement

Familial Factors
•      Poor parental supervision and discipline

•      Parental substance abuse

•      Family conflict and domestic violence

•      Social isolation/lack of support network

•      Supportive caring parents

•      Parental employment

•      Access to support network

School Factors
•      School failure

•      Negative peer group influences

•      Bullying

•      Poor attachment to school

•      Positive school climate

•      Sense of belonging/bonding

•      Opportunities for some success at school and recognition of achievement

Social Factors
•      Neighborhood violence and crime

•      Lack of support services

•      Social or cultural discrimination

•      Access to support service

•      Community networking

•      Participation in community groups


[/fusion_tab][fusion_tab title=”Assessing Resilience among children “]

Why Assess Resilience?

  • Resilience levels influence expected outcomes of many disorders.
  • Resiliency skills can be taught as an intervention strategy.
  • Patterns of strengths within the resiliency domain (mastery, relatedness, reactivity) can influence intervention goals.
  • Victims of school bullying may respond differently depending on their resilience profile.
  • Course of care may vary with resilience profile for children with adjustment reactions to divorce, loss, or other life events.
  • Teens with posttraumatic stress disorder may respond differently depending on their resilience profile.
  • Use together with any symptom based measure to obtain a balanced view of the teen.

Informal Assessment

  • Behavioral observation
  • Clinical Interviews

Formal Assessment

  • The Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM)

The Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM) is designed as a screening tool to explore the resources (individual, relational, communal and cultural) available to youth aged 12 to 23 years old, that may bolster their resilience.

  • Resiliency Scales for Children & Adolescents™ – A Profile of Personal Strengths

Resiliency Scales for Children & Adolescent was developed by Sandra Prince-Embury. The test was published in 2006. The age range for this test is 9 years to 18 years. The resiliency scale for children and adolescents can be administered in dividedly as well as in groups. Time required is 5 minutes for each scale. (Sandra Prince-Embury, 2006) (See Appendix A)

Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents is ideal for the clinical or school psychologist, social worker or counselor because it is

  • Flexible
  • Quick-to-administer.
  • Use separately, together, or in conjunction with any symptom-based measure to obtain a balanced view of the teen.

            Child and Adolescent friendly

  • Allows children to focus on strengths as well as symptoms and vulnerabilities.
  • Results easily interpreted and discussed with adolescents, teachers and parents.
  • May be used to start assessment to establish rapport and to initiate a positive helping relationship.

Treatment focused

  • Quickly screens for personal strengths.
  • Normed with the Beck Youth Inventories-Second Edition, to link a Resiliency Profile with specific symptoms for more targeted treatment planning.
  • Helps clinician generate and prioritize intervention strategies.
  • Systematically benchmark and monitor responses to interventions in terms of strength enhancement as well as symptom reduction.

[/fusion_tab][fusion_tab title=”Building Resilience through Intervention”]

The Cognitive Model

It refers to three components of experience in which a person can ascertain if his or her belief system is distorted. The individual’ unhelpful thoughts create negative feelings which lead to self-destructive behavior. Self-destructive behavior creates hindrance to achieve the goal. The cognitive model replaces unhelpful thoughts to helpful thoughts which create more positive feelings and then lead to constructive behavior (Leahy, 2003).

Essential Features for Resilience

The essential building blocks of resilience are confidence, competence, control, connection, character, contribution.

  1. Competence: When we notice what young people are doing right and give them opportunities to develop important skills, they feel competent. We undermine competence when we don’t allow young people to recover themselves after a fall.
  2. Confidence: Young people need confidence to be able to navigate the world, think outside the box, and recover from challenges.
  3. Connection: Connections with other people, schools, and communities offer young people the security that allows them to stand on their own and develop creative solutions.
  4. Character: Young people need a clear sense of right and wrong and a commitment to integrity.
  5. Contribution: Young people who contribute to the well-being of others will receive gratitude rather than condemnation. They will learn that contributing feels good and may therefore more easily turn to others, and do so without shame.
  6. Coping: Young people who possess a variety of healthy coping strategies will be less likely to turn to dangerous quick fixes when stressed.
  7. Control: Young people who understand privileges and respect are earned through demonstrated responsibility will learn to make wise choices and feel a sense of control.


3 Resources of Resilience

I HAVE: The people who are more trusted, people who set limits and stop when there is danger, people who show things right by the way they do things, people who want to do things on my own, and people who help when sick, in danger, or need to learn (Grotberg, 1993).

I AM:  Glad to do nice things for others, respectful for myself or others, willing to be responsible, sure things will be alright (Grotberg, 1993).

I CAN: Talk to others about things that frighten or bother, find way to solve problems, control myself, find someone for help, and figure out when it is a good time to talk to someone or to take action (Grotberg, 1993).

[/fusion_tab][fusion_tab title=”Activities to build resilience “]

  1. Time Management

Prioritize your weekly schedule as a student. Any educational/academic studies must come first, then extra curriculum activities, and then social life. Friends will want to hang out with you on the weekends, but they will understand if you explain to them that you need to study or catch up on college-related work.

List the exact due dates for events, projects, essays, and other homework. This will greatly help to alert when things need to be done by.

Set a time limit on how long you study for each class. Don’t go overboard on one subject and forget that several others to catch up on before going to bed. Also, don’t rush through studying; take time and concentrate.

Get at least 6-9 hours of sleep. If you have more or less sleep than you should have, you may start lacking in your coursework and become lazy because of the urge or want to sleep.

Think of how non-educational activities are affecting your schedule. If you are babysitting, compromise with the mother on set days and times that goes around academic life. If you cannot commit to your studies because of football practice, then you must take action. When something gets in the way, you need to drop it, even if it’s temporarily.

Don’t neglect your health. Just because you’re short of time doesn’t mean you should live on junk food. Try to get your fruits and vegetables every day. Remember to exercise at least 30 minutes a day. Doing these things will support mental, physical and emotional function.

  1. Hidden Heart


The things that we keep hidden inside are our hurts, emotional pain, scars, and anger. Some people work extra hard to hide these feelings and might eventually physically hurt themselves or others if they don’t share their feelings with others.

This activity gives people the opportunity to share their pain and the anger they have hidden inside. When people start to deal with these feelings of anger before becoming destructive they can experience happiness in their lives once again.

Group Size 1 or more


Paper, Pens or pencils, Scissors, Thin pieces of ribbon, one small, and one large balloon for each person (not inflated),


Give each person a small balloon, piece of ribbon, paper, scissors and a pen or pencil. Explain to them that this balloon represents their heart and all of the pain, hurt and anger that can be found inside of it. Instruct them to cut slips of paper that are small enough to fit into the balloon, to write down their hurts and anger on these, and to then put the papers into the balloon and tie the balloon closed with the ribbon (do not blow up the balloon). These papers do not have to be shown to anyone.

Give each person one of the larger balloons and ask each person to put their “heart” (the smaller balloon) into the larger balloon. Instruct each person to blow up the large balloon and tie it shut. Tell them that they are to write on the outside of the balloon how they present themselves to others on the outside so that nobody can see the things that are hidden on the inside. Some people use humor to hide the pain; others always act confident even though they feel insecure and lonely. These are the types of things people should write on the outside of their balloon.

Once all of the balloons are written on, gather the group together and discuss what is written on the outside of the balloons. Challenge the members of the group to each share at least one thing they have written down on the outside of their balloon. Then ask each person to state if it is a good thing to cover up what is on the inside or if they would like people to know more about what’s going on in their life and if so to think of a way that this can happen. After this discussion, allow them to pop their balloons as a symbolic way of getting rid of all the walls and devices that they use to hide their pain.

After the balloons are popped, the hearts with the ribbons tied around them should remain. Challenge each person in the group to find someone in the next week time whom they trust enough to give their heart to. They should explain to that person what the balloon represents and why they want to give it to them; they should then let that person untie the ribbon to see what is inside. If possible bring the group back together a week later for a follow up group to find out who was able to find someone to give their heart to. Or simply challenge the group to read what they had in their “heart” to the group (Hiew, & Cormier, 1994) (See Appendix B).


  • Play Compliment Game

Group size 6-25

Activity overview

Each  student  decorates  an  envelope  and  writes  his  or  her  name  on  the  front.  Next,  have  students  write  a  nice  comment  about  the  personality  (or  character)  of  each  of  their classmates  on  individual  strips  of  paper. Students deliver their compliments to each other’s envelopes. At the end of the activity, each student will have an envelope full of compliments about their character from their classmates. Have student hang envelope in his or her cubby, desk, or locker for added encouragement at times of stress, e.g., standardized testing, or dips in confidence (Segal, & Yahraes , 1988) (See Appendix C).

Teaching Skills

Enhance self-esteem, self-awareness, Self confidence

  1. The Magic Box


To enhance confidence and positive self-image.


Construct a “magic box” which can be any kind of a box with a mirror placed so as to reflect the face of anyone who looks inside. Begin the activity by asking, “Who do you think is the most special person in the whole world?” After allowing the child to respond, you may continue, “Well, I have a magic box with me, and you can look inside and discover the most special person in the world.” Give the individual a chance to look into the box after you ask who they think they will see (Wolin, & Wolin, 1993).

Post Questioning

  • Are you surprised?
  • How does it feel to see that you are the special person?
  • You smiled so big, like you are happy to see that you are the special person.

Enhancing Competence


  1. The Ten Year Race & Plan for My Goals


To enhance competence and strength


Ask the children where do you want to be after 10 years from today? The child set his goal then the child will make short term goals to reach his long term goals. Short term goals include work goals, academic goals, and personal goals after then identify specific activities to achieve each goal (Wolin, & Wolin, 1993) (See Appendix D).


[/fusion_tab][fusion_tab title=”References”]

Doll, B., & Layon, M. A. (1998). Risk and resilience: Implication for the delivery of

educational mental health services in school. School Psychology Review, 27, 348-363.

Grotberg, E. (1995). A Guide to Promoting Resilience In Children. Retrieved from

Grotberg, E., (1993). Promoting resilience in children: A new approach. University of

Alabama at Birmingham: Civitan.

Hall, D. K., & Pearson, J. (2012). Building Resilience in Young Children. Retrieved from

Hiew, C.C., & Cormier, N. (1994). Children’s Social Skills and Parental Relationship

      Promoting Resilience. Presented at the Annual Conference of the International Council of

Psychologists, Lisbon, Portugal, July, 1994.

Leahy, R.L. (2003). Cognitive Therapy Techniques: A practitioner’s Guide. Guilford PressMicheal, U. & Liebenberg, L. (2009). The Child and Youth Resilience Measure

(CYRM). (2013). Retrieved from


Prince, S. (2006). Resiliency Scales for Children & Adolescents™ – A Profile of Personal

Strengths (RSCA). Retrieved from


Protective Factors & Resiliency. (2012). Retrieved from


Risk, Protective and Resilience factors for children. (2013). Retrieved from

Rutter, & Michael. (1984) Resilient children. Psychology Today. 57-65.

Segal, & Julius. (1986) Winning Life’s Toughest Battles: Roots of Human Resilience. New

York: McGraw-Hill.

Segal, J., & Yahraes, H. (1988). A Child’s Journey. New York: McGraw Hill.

Werner, Emmy. (1990). Protective factors and individual resilience. In Handbook Of Early

      Childhood Intervention, ed. by Samuel Meisels and Jack Shonkoff. New York:

Cambridge University.


November 30, 2016 / by / in ,

Submitted by: Tayyaba Kayani

[fusion_tabs design=”classic” layout=”vertical” justified=”yes” backgroundcolor=”” inactivecolor=”” bordercolor=”” hide_on_mobile=”small-visibility,medium-visibility,large-visibility” class=”” id=””][fusion_tab title=”Motivation”]


Motivation can be defined as internal state of activating behavior that gives direction. It is the set of psychological forces that make individuals to perform and complete their goals.

In other words, it can be described as to bring a change is easier than to stick to the old rules. It helps you to draw attention towards your goals more appropriately. It is the energy that drives individuals and they get more directed toward their destinations.

Motivation can be intrinsic or extrinsic depending on the context. Intrinsic motivation is the self-desire to explore new things and different challenges, to evaluate one’s ability, to observe and to gain knowledge. It is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on external pressures or a desire for consideration. Extrinsic motivation refers to the performance of an activity in order to attain a desired outcome and it is the opposite of intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation comes from influences outside of the individual. Usually extrinsic motivation is used to attain outcomes that a person wouldn’t get from intrinsic motivation.

[/fusion_tab][fusion_tab title=”Importance”]

Most motivation theorists believe that motivation is involved in the performance of all learned responses; that is, a learned behavior will not occur unless it is energized.  The major question among psychologists, in general, is whether motivation is a primary or secondary influence on behavior.  That is, are changes in behavior better explained by principles of environmental or ecological influences, perception, memory, cognitive development, emotion, explanatory style, or personality or are concepts unique to motivation more pertinent.

[/fusion_tab][fusion_tab title=”Motivation and psychotherapy”]

Motivation lies at the core of many behaviorist approaches to psychological treatment. A person with autism-spectrum disorder is seen as lacking motivation to perform socially relevant behaviors – social stimuli are not as reinforcing for people with autism compared to other people. Depression is understood as a lack of reinforcement (especially positive reinforcement) leading to extinction of behavior in the depressed individual. A patient with specific phobia is not motivated to seek out the phobic stimulus because it acts as a punisher, and is over-motivated to avoid it (negative reinforcement). In accordance, therapies have been designed to address these problems, such as EIBI and CBT for major depression and specific phobia.

[/fusion_tab][fusion_tab title=”Theories of Motivation”]

Instinct Theory of Motivation

People are motivated to behave in certain ways because they are evolutionarily programmed to do so.

Incentive Theory of Motivation

People are motivated to do things because of external rewards.

Drive Theory of Motivation

People are motivated to take certain actions in order to reduce the internal tension that is caused by unmet needs.

Arousal Theory of Motivation

People take certain actions to either decrease or increase levels of arousal.

Humanistic Theory of Motivation

People also have strong cognitive reasons to perform various actions.

Expectancy Theory of Motivation

When people are thinking about the future, they formulate different expectations about what they think will happen. When they predict that there will most likely be a positive outcome, they believe that they are able to make that possible future a reality. This leads people to feel more motivated to pursue those likely outcomes.

[/fusion_tab][fusion_tab title=”How to get motivated?”]

  • Exercise more consistently
  • Become more creative
  • Start each day stress-free
  • Sleep better

[/fusion_tab][fusion_tab title=”References”]



November 28, 2016 / by / in , ,

The Mannequin Challenge is a viral internet video trend where people remain frozen in action like mannequins while a video is recorded, usually with the song “Black Beatles” by Rae Sremmurd playing in the background. Arslan Akhtar Ali; The student of Media & Mass Communication (Head/Founder of Psychology Forever) tried to make “Mannequin Challenge” video on students and staff of media department of International Islamic University, Islamabad.

The reason to introduce such small entertainment activity in media department of International Islamic University, Islamabad was to give students some relief from their intense study routines. The stress level in students in Pakistan is increasing alarmingly as a result the suicide rate in students are also increasing on daily basis. According to experts (National/International) due to heavy burden of course and lack of entertainment activities the students are becoming victim of depression.

Case of a student named “Abdul Mobin” who committed suicide; “A seventh-grader Abdul Mobin in Abbottabad took his life after he failed in exams”.

“If they don’t have the right balance of opportunities, resources and hope, they can get ‘bored’ and hopeless” explains Dr Murad Musa Khan, Chairman of the Department of Psychiatry at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi.

Dr Shifa Naeem, a Karachi-based psychiatrist, believes today’s teenagers especially students are exposed to many more stresses than their counterparts were a generation or two back.

So these kind of entertainment activities should be introduced in every educational institutions of Pakistan so students can also get some time of joy along with relief from their daily hectic routines.

November 19, 2016 / by / in ,


Submitted by: Haleema Abdul Hayee

Governmentllege University, Lahore


[fusion_tabs design=”classic” layout=”vertical” justified=”yes” backgroundcolor=”” inactivecolor=”” bordercolor=”” hide_on_mobile=”small-visibility,medium-visibility,large-visibility” class=”” id=””][fusion_tab title=”Definition ” icon=””]


“Dyscalculia is a learning disability that affects a person’s ability to understand numbers and learn math facts. Individuals with this type of Learning Disability may also have poor comprehension of math symbols, may struggle with memorizing and organizing numbers, have difficulty telling time, or may have trouble with counting”.

[/fusion_tab][fusion_tab title=”Explanation ” icon=””]

Learning disabilities in math vary greatly depending on the child’s other strengths and weaknesses. A child’s ability to do math will be affected differently by a language learning disability, or a visual disorder or a difficulty with sequencing, memory or organization. A child with a math-based learning disorder may struggle with memorization and organization of numbers, operation signs, and number “facts” (like 5+5=10 or 5×5=25). Children with math learning disorders might also have trouble with counting principles (such as counting by twos or counting by fives) or have difficulty telling time.

[/fusion_tab][fusion_tab title=”Signs and Symptoms ” icon=””]

  • Shows difficulty understanding concepts of place value, quantity, number lines, positive and negative value, carrying and borrowing
  • Has difficulty understanding and doing word problems
  • Has difficulty sequencing information or events
  • Exhibits difficulty using steps involved in math operations
  • Shows difficulty understanding fractions
  • Is challenged making change and handling money
  • Displays difficulty recognizing patterns when adding, subtracting, multiplying, or dividing
  • Has difficulty putting language to math processes
  • Has difficulty understanding concepts related to time such as days, weeks, months, seasons, quarters, etc.
  • Exhibits difficulty organizing problems on the page, keeping numbers lined up, following through on long division problems.

[/fusion_tab][fusion_tab title=”Causes/Risk factors ” icon=””]

A learning disability happens when a person’s brain development is affected, either before they are born, during their birth or in early childhood.

  • The mother becoming ill in pregnancy
  • Problems during the birth that stop enough oxygen getting to the brain.
  • Illness, such as meningitis
  • Brain injury in early childhood
  • Genetics: sometimes the unborn baby develop certain genes or parents pass certain malfunctioned genes to the unborn baby that make having a learning disability more likely that is known as inherited learning disability acting as a cause.  
  • There is 10% risk in a dyscalculic family member of math disability whereas there are

47% chances that another learning disability would occur in family.

Some Diseases act as Risk factors

  • Down syndrome
  • Autism
  • Cerebral Palsy
  • Epilepsy (30%)
  • Turner Syndrome
  • Fragile X Syndrome in girls

[/fusion_tab][fusion_tab title=”Neuro-biological Factors ” icon=””]

Brain structures and Functions

          Abnormal activities in these brain areas lead to the mathematical problems relating to calculations and approximations because these areas are involved in exact calculations and approximations.

  • Inferior pre-frontal cortex in left-hemisphere
  • Left angular-gyrus
  • Inferior parietal lobe

Epidemiology Prevalence 

  • Approximately 5-6% of school age children suffer from dyscalculia (Shalev et al., 2000).

Gender ratio

  • Equal prevalence in boys and girls has been found for this problem (Shalev et al., 2000).

[/fusion_tab][fusion_tab title=”Assessment/Diagnosis ” icon=””]

Learning disabilities can be identified by any one of following professionals by means of

4 step assessment process.

  • Psychiatrists
  • School psychologists
  • Clinical psychologists
  • Counseling psychologists
  • Neuropsychologists

Assessment Process

1- Screening

  • Observation
  • Brief test
  • Review of medical, school or home performance
  • Homework note books
  • Previous records of performance

2- Evaluation

  1. A combination of formal intelligence testing II. Testing for processing and comprehension.

III. Academic achievement testing that may involve:

§ Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT)

It is used for Reading, writing, oral language, as well as math skills (depending on which Sub-tests have been used).

  • Wide Range Achievement Test 4 (WRAT-4)

It measures Basic academic skills in reading, spelling and math for ages 5 and up.

  • Test of Mathematical Abilities (TOMA-3)

What it measures: Math abilities in kids 8 years and up

§ Key Math–3 Diagnostic Assessment

What it measures: Essential math concepts, skills, strengths and weakness of child in area.

  1. Diagnosis

A statement specifying the results of the assessment, including the type of LD identified.

4. Recommendations

                        Depending upon the type of disability identified recommendations for home,

school, and daily living are provided.

Other areas of assessment may include perception, cognition, memory, attention, and language abilities for excluding other problems.

[/fusion_tab][fusion_tab title=”Strategies for management at Individual level ” icon=””]


  • Allow use of fingers and scratch paper
  • Use diagrams and draw math concepts
  • Provide peer assistance
  • Work with manipulatives
  • Suggest use of colored pencils to differentiate problems
  • Suggest use of graph paper
  • Draw pictures of word problems
  • Use mnemonic devices to learn steps of a math concept
  • Use rhythm and music to teach math facts and to set steps to a beat Schedule computer time for the student for drill and practice.

[/fusion_tab][fusion_tab title=”What Schools Can Do for Implementation of Intervention Plan? ” icon=””]

2Empirical Synthesis

Baker, (2002) According to him effective outcomes can be achieved through:

  • Providing data on student performance to teachers and students.
  • Peer tutoring
  • Providing feedback to parents on student’s achievement for close liaison.
  • Explicit teaching of math concepts and procedures.

Classroom instructions

The classroom instructions should:

  1. Take place in groups
  2. Teacher directed
  3. Academically focused.
  4. Specifically take into account a student’s individual needs.

[/fusion_tab][fusion_tab title=”Behavioral Intervention ” icon=””]

Modeling of Computational Skills

Teacher’s demonstrations of calculations, algorithms and higher-level procedural steps have been found effective in both computational and problem solving behaviors in students.


Strategy Training: Task Analysis

          A task analysis of the relevant cognitive operation is demonstrated and explained to the students. When students have mastered the component skills, strategies are provided that help the students integrate the steps and apply them in different problem solving context.

Self-instructional Strategy

          Self-instructional strategy is to teach a student first verbalize the steps that should be used in solving a particular math problem. Once the student has mastered the application of problem solving algorithms, the student is taught to self-instruct but using sub-vocal directions.

Tutorial Interventions

  • Explicit explanations by teacher
  • Pictorial or concrete representations
  • Verbal rehearsal with prompting and gradual fading
  • Intensive timed practice on mixed problem sets
  • Self-regulation strategies (research has shown that students that set their own learning goals are more successful than students who worked on teachers designed goals).
  • Cumulative review of the previously mastered skills. Provision of reinforcement on showing improvement § Make use of talking calculators or talking books.



[/fusion_tab][fusion_tab title=”Reference ” icon=””]

  • Reiff, Henry B.; Gerber, Paul J.; Ginsberg, Rick (1993). “Definitions of Learning Disabilities from Adults with Learning Disabilities: The Insiders’ Perspectives”. Learning Disability Quarterly. 16 (2): 114–125. doi:10.2307/1511133. JSTOR 1511133.
  • Excerpted from the LDA of California and UC Davis M.I.N.D. Institute “Q.U.I.L.T.S.” Calendar 2001-2002.
  • Reschly, Daniel J.; Hosp, John L.; Schmied, Catherine M. (2003). And Miles to Go. State SLD Requirements and Authoritative Recommendations (Report). National Research Center on Learning Disabilities (NRCLD). Recommendations for Change in SLD Definition and Classification Criteria. Archived from the original on 25 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
  • Specific Learning Disorder. American Psychiatric Association DSM-5 Development. American Psychiatric Association. 15 May 2013.


November 11, 2016 / by / in ,


My name is Aslam and I am from Sahiwal,Pakistan. My father is a businessman linked with Textile Industry. I along with my family used to live in a town located in Sahiwal city. That town was luxurious, high-cost and mostly having wealthy residents.

We were having good relations with our neighbours and it was casual for us to go to each other homes. I can still clearly visualize that it was the month of April when my neighbour located at left sold his house to the couple who were freshly married (I came to know when they visited our house for the first time after shifting). At that epoch I was doing matriculation. I was young, believe me I was innocent. I was unaware of my newly shifted neighbour’s obscene fantasies.

With the passage of time they became friendly with us and they used to join us especially for the “Teatime” in the evening and vice versa. Due to students’ union protest in our school, I got vacation for one week. Oneday around 9 AM I was having my breakfast when she came to our home and told my mom that she was watching her wedding movie while CD stopped working so she told my mom that ask your son to fix this problem.

After having my breakfast I went to her home to fix the problem related to CD but her behavior was strange and she said I want to show you something and her strange facial expressions along with her non-verbal gestures made me entirely perplexed. I said “Ok, show me”. I felt threatened and shocked when she made me to watch an immodest video in which characters of video were performing brazen and unvirtuous acts.

As I already told you that I was an innocent person so I responded immediately that I would tell your husband regarding your this rock-bottom act. Suddenly her husband came out of another room and I was shocked. I shouted loudly uncle have a look at your wife’s act, she was trying to indulge me in ill-suited act. I thought my heart would collapse coz my heart-beat was 100 times more than usual. Her husband’s reply just literally battered me severely.

He said don’t be panic, he made me to sit down and asked me to relax. After that they both taught me the role of third male person in lovemaking while showing me the several third-rated videos. They intimidated me and petrified me while saying not to tell my mom and dad regarding all this activity. They told me to join them every week for the sake of performing what they taught me.

Within a week my family started noticing the ample amount of change in my behaviour. I became addict to their immoral acts. Within a month I became exceptionally feeble. I started feeling severe depression having a severe non-enduring back pain as well. I lost my appetite coz of preoccupied strange thoughts of guilty and fear. I started performing self-harming activities. At night I used to get afraid while looking out of my window while my eyes pinned at their house so I used to wake up till the morning. I used to feel severe restlessness in my body. I told them that now I would not be part of their filthy acts but they used to warn me by showing me my inappropriate video in which I was performing immoral acts with them.

I started having suicidal thoughts as I thought now the only way left to end this conflict of guilt in my inner self is to end my life coz I lost respect for myself and relationships as I was keep on thinking regarding immoral acts. My father took me to the local “Masjid” and told “Molana Sahab” regarding my prevailing condition. Molana Shahab asked my father to let him alone speak to me. He asked me “Beta kya maslah hai, muje apna smjh kay sb kuch sach sach batao, mein tmhara maslah inshaaAllah hal krn ga.[Son, what’s wrong with you just tell me the reality without any hesitation and I will inshaaAllah solve your problem]”.

I was afraid and in the next few seconds I burst into tears and wholly depleted. I told Molana Shahab about each and single happening and regarding my neighbour’s couple venereal acts. I told him that they are also having a video of mine in which I am also performing immoral acts along with them. Molana Sahab immediately told my father about all the happenings and accompany him towards our street.

All the adult member of families residing in our street were gathered and Molana Sahab told them regarding all the scenario. When they all together went to their house and the astonishing element was, the main gate was having latch/locked. My father was not in the favour of calling the police as according to him the culprits were having my inappropriate video as well. After waiting for several hours when they didn’t come back the Molana Sahab told my father to break the lock with a hammer. When my father break the lock and went inside along with the other residents’ of street, the furniture and other goods were still there but the cupboards were empty i.e. having no clothes and documents. Latterly, my father came to know that they were living with the fake identities and even bought the house while using similar fake identities.

My father was a businessman so due to his reputational concerns he just squelched the matter. My father along with the family shifted to Multan where I started getting psychological treatment under the supervision of one of the top psychologist of Pakistan. The counseling continued for almost 3.5 years (worst years of my life) but then I was managed to get out of the trauma.

Now I am living a happy and contented life as my past no more haunt me. I am a MBA graduate from one of the renowned university of Pakistan and currently helping my father to expand his business.

The reason behind sharing my story with you is to educate and aware the parents to look after their children and I wanted to tell them through your blog that never ever trust anyone when it comes to safety/protection of your child. Make sure you know that what kind of company your child have or never let them to stay alone with adults including neighbours and other family relatives as well i.e. proper check and balance.


November 1, 2016 / by / in ,

Al Qishthiyanna that’s my name. In the past when anyone used to hear that name they always thought about an ugly girl with a fat body, dark skin, personality closed and geeky appearance. Yeah, because that was me, a few years ago.

I used to lack confidence, I always used to think that I am just a supporting character in this life i.e. I am not important for anyone so nobody would bother even if I die. Everyday I just used to sit in the bleachers while watching other people enjoying their lives and I used to lost myself into deep day dreaming that someday I will become a main character in this life and will live a happy life like other people but then I used to thought that dreams are just dreams, they can not become reality.

Majority of people claim that they fall in love with someone who will have a beautiful heart. But I think that’s all a nonsense why? Because I used to love someone but he left me because I was not beautiful and ugly. It doesn’t just happen for once as I’m not only unlucky with love but with many other things in my life as well for example: I really love to sing, I am a trained singer but people used to make fun of me; they used to laugh at me because I was not beautiful; I was extremely overweight having ugly looks so I was nobody’s priority. So I always used to ask several questions from myself that why people bully me and hate me just because I am not good looking? Why they look at me like they will kill me? Why they don’t like me? Why? Every night I used to think about this while crying alone.

At night I used to take a lot of medicines in order to overcome my inferiority complex and to restrict the overthinking preoccupied thought process. When I used to wakeup in the morning, I used to feel so sick but as usual nobody care about me and I was still suffering the same loneliness.

Oneday being tired of overdose of medications, I finally mustered up enough courage to stand infront of the mirror and I look at myself into the mirror. I asked myself that Am I really ugly? Am I really do not deserve to get happiness? And the answer was NO!

That day I decided to change myself in a positive way, For this purpose I cut off and disappeared from my friends and family so I can have a quality time for my ownself. During that juncture, I managed and convinced myself that I am the main character of this life.

Within two years of hardwork including the tough physical workouts like gym and running, day afer day my confidence started to built slowly. When I was able to assure myself  that now I’ve become a different person with full of positive energy and confident enough to face the world then I went back to my family and friends .




October 28, 2016 / by / in ,

My name is Zainab Rehman. I am a professional Sketch Artist and rightnow I am working in one of the renowned international art society of Pakistan while my monthly income is in Lacs. Approximately 9 years ago, after getting average passing marks in matriculation my father forced me to join AL-Mustafa academy,Islamabad in order to get better marks in my intermediate.

In Al-Mustafa academy I was encountered with my physics teacher. No doubt his teaching skills were awesome and he was a famous physics teacher as well but his thoughts about other professions other than engineering and medical were pathetic. His favouritism was for those students who wanted to become an engineer or a doctor whereas those students who used to have different aims/goals were badly disrespected by him.

When I told him that I want to become a professional sketch artist then he started making fun of me infront of the whole class on the daily basis. He said “Be a doctor or an engineer and don’t screw me up with your silly aims and goals. He further added “The respect only belongs to these occupations whereas other professions are worthless”.

He was my teacher so I often used to bear his negative comments while the whole class laughing at me. Once he said “You are a useless piece of crap, look at Arooba she is better than you coz she has got good grades in matriculation exam and she is passionate about becoming a doctor”.

I started grieving because of his rude behavior towards me just because my aims were different than others around me. Due to continuous insults and taunts that were delivered by him, I decided to give up on my dreams as I went too low i.e. in the state of depression.

I tried to kill myself by eating ample amount of sleeping pills. At this stage I met an amazing professional sketch artist from NCA,Rawalpindi named Nadia Kazmi and she motivated me by sharing her personal struggle that how she faced the harsh attitudes and comments of her teachers and even her relatives. She said “No human can decide your fate, if your teachers don’t respect you just because you are a different soul with different aims/goals then it’s not your fault actually they are living their lives inside the box of fake reality. Their thinking calibre is not enough to understand your hidden talent and creativity. Your teacher is just illogical as he wanted to see a fish to fly like a bird so write down my words that your teacher is a liar”.

On that day I decided to follow my dream that was to become a professional sketch artist while proving these so called “MENTORS” wrong, so the upcoming generation can get some motivation and encouragement from me.

I completed my Bachelor degree from NCA,Lahore after that I got scholarship from Art School Australia,Melbourne and I went to Australia to pursue a professional course in Sketching. After getting the degree from Art School Australia,Melbourne I came back to Pakistan in order to practice my skills.

Within no time an international art society of Pakistan called me for the job proposal as they were really impressed by my talent i.e. my talent of sketching and putting the reality on the paper. Now I am living an extremely happy and respectful life while getting my monthly salary in Lacs.

Never ever let anyone to decide your fate; the respect is in talent not in the grades or not part of any specific occupation. You will be respected if you have got some real talent. It doesn’t matter even if you are not an engineer or a doctor or don’t have good grades.

Today I am enough clear and confident to say:

October 27, 2016 / by / in ,

Rasheed AKA BJ is from Nigeria. He came to Pakistan to pursue his higher education and currently he is doing BS in International Relations from International Islamic University,Islamabad. Apart from studies he is a professional Tattoo Artist.

When he was in his childhood and even boyhood people used to call him a loser and even he used to get bullied in his school on the basis of his color i.e.Racism. He said after going through all this negative stuff I started losing myself.

He said at that time I thought I am worthless so my life was all about hopelessness. He further added that he was about to commit suicide as for him the world was a cruel place to live on.

He said “I was suffering from the severe depression while finding myself caged i.e. No Way Out and a simple sentence that I said to myself after doing years of contemplation regarding life, just changed my life and that was Life is beautiful, So Enjoy!”.

He decided to live his life wholly with a new positive pattern of thinking without caring about others’ negative stuff instead he decided to focus on his talent and strength. Within no time he became the professional Tattoo Artist, started earning a handsome amount of money and from his college studies to till now he is paying his fee on his own while working as a professional Tattoo Artist.

He said to me “You love rapping(Rap) just keep your focus towards the right direction and don’t care about those who laugh at you; who wanted to break you down and soon you will get over them. I along with my friends will love to become part of your next rap video and I myself will do the video direction”

While concluding he said:


October 26, 2016 / by / in ,