Muhammad Aamir

  • Muhammad Aamir
  • Muhammad Aamir is the Founder and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Psychology Roots, a forum he started in 2013. He holds a degree of MS Psychology (Clinical Psychology) from Department of Psychology, International Islamic University Islamabad, Pakistan. He is actively involved in different activities to provide insight about Psychology and role of Psychologist in Pakistan. He also conducts different workshops about the awareness of psychological disorders.
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Professional and Research Degree (Requirements and Differences)

Professional and Research Degree (Requirements and Differences)

By Rukhshanda Jabeen Syed

Students at the time of planning career have to make important decisions beforehand. These decisions will help them greatly in achieving their goal and later on in their success. There are multiple factors that play important roles in making a choice for career. Some are dedicated to students’ psychological, motivational, academic, financial needs, and sometimes the social needs. Motivations are driven by and driving the informational aspect as well. Students urge to know about the discipline before the time and having a clear orientation is also driving them to make a right choice. An analysis is being produced here for the educational degrees, types, their requirements and difference found among them.

Professional masters degrees prepare a person to do professional work by introducing practical skills and frameworks for understanding issues in their field. Professional masters degrees may also qualify a person to practice in their field (Master of Social Work, Master of Architecture, or Master of Art in Teaching, Engineering, Medicine, Law, Fashion Designing, Business Administration, for example). Moreover there are some diplomas that endorse the professional degrees and get the students into practical job fields. Whereas a research degree comprises courses that are basic in nature and in some cases the practical research project is required to fulfil that degree. The degrees like Masters of Philosophy or Doctorate of Philosophy are research degree in complete sense. These include the definite time period and practical tasks related to research only. There are some honorary graduation degrees as well that include mini-research projects in specialization courses but that does not make a degree research one.

The scope of jobs related to research degree is somewhat different than the ones for professional degree. As education and field exposure affects students differently, making and changing students’ perspectives and priorities as well. A PhD is first and foremost a research degree that is intensely focused on both scholarly and professional development. In contrast, a professional degree focuses more specifically on skills and knowledge necessary for success a particular profession, without as intense of a focus on research and other scholarly work.

To join any educational class it is necessary to first get updated about the requirements of the course that makes the student stand eligible to get admission to that course. The base rate matters alot and it explains about the educational background a student has, the type of previous degrees and the percentages scored in academic exams. The institute or university in which admission is being opted might give a written test for aspirants. This test is given for two purposes; one, to establish the achievement status of students for admission and to predict a hit rate for the success in future exams of that degree.

Depending both on students’ professional field and their educational goals, they may have to choose between a professional degree program and a research degree program. Firstly, they must determine what their career goals are, and which degree is most helpful to them. they can find out more about the requirements in their field by doing some basic internet research, asking admissions staff at universities or colleges, and even conducting informational interviews with professionals.

If any student is unsure right now what his or her ultimate goal is, he or she has at least a couple of choices:

  • Get time to better discover and define career goals first.
  • One may start a professional or masters program and later choose to go on to the research or Ph.D. program.
  • In another scenario altogether, the masters degree in that field may be terminal—a higher degree may not exist. In this case, one doesn’t have to decide whether or not to go on to a Ph.D. It’s still wise to make career goals explicit (at least to one’s own self) in deciding whether or not to go to university.

Conclusively it can be said that knowing professional goals will help guide your choices for graduate study. Certain career paths, such as becoming a public defender or a medical doctor, are very clearly marked with the necessary steps, including the required educational level and graduate degree. Other career paths are less regular and therefore require more investigation and discovery on students’ part. Thoroughly researching the field of interest and having a strong understanding of the skills and knowledge students want and need from their education will inform which degree options make the most sense for your goals.

April 29, 2016 / by / in ,
kaufman adolescent and adult intelligence test

Psychological Test

Name Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test
Purpose Designed  to measure both fluid and crystallized intelligence
Population Ages 11 to 85+
Score These six subtests comprise the core bttery of the KAIT and together yield the composite IQ , an index of general intelligence. The standard IQ scores have M= 100 and SD= 15. The standard scores of ten subtests have M=1- and SD= 3 and are called subtest scaled scores.

 

Time (58-73) minutes for core battery, (83-102) minutes for expanded battery
Author  Alan S. Kaufman and Nadeen L. Kaufman
Publisher American Guidance Service Inc.
Description The KAIT includes two components, a core battery and an expanded battery. The core battery consists of a fluid scale, a crystallized scale, and six subtests, and takes about 65 minutes to complete. The expanded battery includes the core battery elements, as well as four additional subtests, and takes about 90 minutes to complete. The expanded battery also includes memory for block designs, a measure of visual processing related to fluid intelligence; famous faces, a test of cultural knowledge related to crystallized intelligence; auditory delayed recall; and Rebus delayed recall. The two delayed recall subtests provide a general measure of delayed memory.
Reliability and Validity Test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from .87 (fluid IQ score ) to .97 (Crystallized IQ scale). The sub test-retest reliability coefficients were below .80. Norms The normative sample included 2000 individuals ages 11 to 85 + years. The sample was representative of the US population census for gender, socioeconomic status, and race group
Suggested Uses  

The KAIT widely used with Wechsler scales of intelligence, (the Wechsler intelligence scale for children and the Wechsler adult intelligence scale ). The KAIT crystallized IQ has been shown to measure abilities similar to those measured by the Wechsler scales’ verbal intelligence factor. However, the KAIT Fluid IQ has been shown to measure abilities considerably different from those measured by the Wechsler performance factor, which is thought to be a measure of fluid intelligence.

Prepared by Namra Sarwar

 

April 1, 2016 / by / in ,
What does Psychology say about terrorism?

What does Psychology say about terrorism?

By Ahmed Mujtaba Owaisi

The Term terrorism has been defined in many ways, even there are about hundred definitions of terrorism in the United Nations. The Oxford dictionary defines terrorism as “The unlawful use of violence and intimidation, especially against civilians, in the pursuit of political aims”
The term terrorism originated from the French word “terrorisme” and from Latin word “terrere” and originally referred specifically to state terrorism as practiced by the French government during the 1793–1794 Reign of Terror.
Terrorism has affected the whole world especially after the events of 9/11. It affects a count

Psychology and Terrorism

ry in many different ways from the loss of innocent human lives, loss of public or government property, economic losses, and even to the destabilization of the country.
Pakistan is in continuous state of war with terrorism for a long time especially after 9/11 and especially it started in 2003 in Pakistan. According to the statistics there were 27528 causalities in Pakistan including 21075 civilians and 6453 security forces personnel since 2003 to 27 March 2016. While 32838 terrorists were also killed in the same duration.
One important factor here is that there is no link of Islam with terrorism. Because Islam is the religion of peace and prosperity for the whole humanity, not only the Muslims. According to Islam “Whoever kills a person [unjustly]…it is as though he has killed all mankind. And whoever saves a life, it is as though he had saved all mankind.” (Qur’an, 5:32)

Here a question arises that why people become terrorists? According to studies in the field of psychology the common perception that terrorists are psychopaths, antisocial personalities, or sadist is not true. Rather people become violent due to different reasons. In most famous psychological experiment “Stanford Prison Experiment” 24 students were selected out of 75 students. Among them 2 were selected as reserve and one was dropped out. Finally the remaining 21students were divided in to two groups one of prisoners (10 students) and guards (11 students). The results found that “Within a very short time both guards and prisoners were settling into their new roles, with the guards adopting theirs quickly and easily.
Within hours of beginning the experiment some guards began to harass prisoners. They behaved in a brutal and sadistic manner, apparently enjoying it. Other guards joined in, and other prisoners were also tormented”. These results indicated that any one (in right or wrong circumstances) could be led to perpetrate acts of extreme violence.

According to Social psychologists Stephen D. Reicher and S. Alexander Haslam People become agree for violent acts of terrorism when they are assured that they are doing an act of blessing and virtue. This is how they are brain washed. Furthermore the other major cause along with this is lake of knowledge and awareness due to which those people do not think critically and get ready to work with terrorists.
French anthropologist Dounia Bouzar said that young people join terrorists due to emotional reasons instead of reasoning. So parents should focus on the acts of their children and should also develop a strong communication with them.
Secondly in the situation of Pakistan no one should be allowed to say anything in favor of terrorists because it can mislead his followers for violent actions against the public as well as armed forces. Furthermore some other Ulma give lectures on Jannat which are also misused by the terrorists for brainwashing.
So what should be the possible solution? First of all there should be a committee at the government level which should include Ulma’s from every sect to control any speeches and acts which cause sectarian division. They should openly say that there is no relation of Islam with terrorism and declare such acts and people as terrorist ones.
All the division on the basis of sects and languages should be removed to make the public united. Because when we are in a state we all are Pakistani, all the citizens are equal irrespective of sects, languages, and minorities. When people will be made realized then there will not be any division which will also reduce the chances of being misused by terrorists.

March 30, 2016 / by / in ,
Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS)

Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS)

By Namra Sarwar

Name Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS)
Purpose designed to assess the general reasoning ability of children
Population 3-9 years
Score Age deviation score
Time 15-20 min
Author Bessie Burgemeister, Lucille H. Blum, and Irving Lorge
Publisher The Psychological Corporation
Description The Columbia scale is “an individually administered instrument designed to assess the general reasoning ability of children between the ages of 3 years, 6 months to 9 years, 11 months.”  The CMMS consists of 92 pictorial and figural, classification items arranged in a series of eight overlapping levels. This test is used for children that might have some form of a limitation/disability that would deter them away from other tests.
Scoring Scoring is done by taking the raw score, Age Deviation Score, percentile rank, and Maturity index. The Age Deviation Score is a standard score with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 16. The maturity indexes are comparable to mental ages, although they are more global, employing the use of ranges of age rather than specific mental ages.
Reliability and Validity In regards to reliability, the CMMS manual reports both a split-half and test retest reliabilities. The split-half reliabilities are reported for each of the 13 age levels. Internal consistency coefficients ranging from low of .85 to a high of .91 with a median split half coefficient of .90 for the standardization group. A median test-retest reliability of .85 was obtained. The CMMS manual reports co relational data between the CMMS and the subtests of the SAT. This data indicates that the standard scores of the CMMS correlate with the various subtest scores of the SAT (with a median value of .57) for all Primary I Battery subtests. The Deviation IQ score of the Stanford-Binet and the CMMS correlated .67 for the 52 preschool and first grade children from a large southern city.
Norms Norms were found with a sample of 200 children selected from each age level closely reflecting the population. It was standardized on 2.600 children on the basis of parental occupation, race, geographic location, and size of residence community.
Suggested Uses The CMMS is recommended as an instrument for screening the general reasoning ability in young children. It is designed to help educators select curriculum materials and learning tasks for children with special needs or for normal children.
Prepared by Namra Sarwar

 

 

March 26, 2016 / by / in ,
Test Anxiety Inventory

Test Anxiety Inventory

By Namra Sarwar

 

Name Test Anxiety Inventory
Purpose Designed to measure test anxiety
Population High school and college students
Score Percentile score
Time 8-10 minutes
Author Charles D. Spielberger
Publisher Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc
Description The Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI), a self-report psychometric scale, was developed to measure individual differences in test anxiety as a situation-specific trait. Based on a Likert Scale, the respondents are asked to report how frequently they experience specific symptoms of anxiety before, during and after examinations. In addition to measuring individual differences in anxiety proneness in test situations, the TAI sub scales assess worry and emotionality as major components of test anxiety.
Scoring TAI consists of 20 items and each item has four options ranging from Almost Never to Almost Always.
Reliability and Validity Spielberger et al (1978) argue that the internal consistency of the Test Anxiety Inventory is α .86 and it is significantly correlated with other commonly used anxiety measures.Thus, TAI is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing test anxiety
Norms The normative sample consisted of high school and college students
Suggested Uses It is recommended for use in research and clinical settings.
Prepared by Namra Sarwar

 

 

March 1, 2016 / by / in ,
Child Abuse

Child Abuse

By Namra Sarwar

Child abuse is a condition when children suffer with physical and emotional harm, injury, and neglect behavior by the people whom they interact mostly. It can be parents, caregivers, teachers etc.

The World Health Organisation (1999) defines child abuse as:

Child abuse or maltreatment constitutes all forms of physical and/or emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect or negligent treatment or commercial or other exploitation, resulting in actual or potential harm to the child’s health, survival, development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power.

 

Prevalence of Child Abuse in Pakistan

  • The reported cases of Child sexual abuse published as Cruel Numbers by Sahil from 2007 to 2011 reveals that a total number of 10726 children were sexually victimized.
  • The report showed that among all the age groups, the number of victims (2617) between the age bracket of 11-15 years are most vulnerable to child abuse.
  • According to the findings in a study carried out by UNICEF (2006), in the Pacific countries, sexual abuse victims are generally girls of 7 to 11 years of age.
  • The year wise trends in CSA cases over the years show that out of a total of 10726 cases, the victims were 7570 girls (71%) and 3156 boys (29%).

(Continue…)

February 28, 2016 / by / in ,
One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest (1975)

One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest (1975)

For a generation of students new to psychology, this film offers a slice of their profession’s history, as see
n in the barbaric and controlling treatment of patients at a psychiatric hospital.

One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (1975)McMurphy has a criminal past and has once again gotten himself into trouble and is sentenced by the court. To escape labor duties in prison, McMurphy pleads insanity and is sent to a ward for the mentally unstable. Once here, McMurphy both endures and stands witness to the abuse and degradation of the oppressive Nurse Ratched, who gains superiority and power through the flaws of the other inmates. McMurphy and the other inmates band together to make a rebellious stance against the atrocious Nurse.Written by Jacob Oberfrank

 

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January 2, 2016 / by / in ,
Memento (2000)

Memento (2000)

Description 

Memento(2000)

 

Memento chronicles two separate stories of Leonard, an ex-insurance investigator who can no longer build new memories, as he attempts to find the murderer of his wife, which is the last thing he remembers. One story line moves forward in time while the other tells the story backwards revealing more each time. Written by Scion013.

 

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January 1, 2016 / by / in ,